## The Basics: Understanding Percentages

When it comes to mathematics, percentages are a fundamental concept. They are used to represent a portion or part of a whole, expressed as a fraction of 100. Simply put, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100.

### What is 12 of 30?

If you’re wondering what percentage 12 is of 30, it’s simply a matter of dividing 12 by 30, then multiplying by 100 to convert the decimal to a percentage.

So, 12 divided by 30 is 0.4. To convert this to a percentage, we multiply it by 100, giving us 40%. Therefore, 12 is 40% of 30.

## Why is it important to know percentages?

Percentages are used in many different areas of life, including finance, statistics, and science. Understanding percentages allows you to make informed decisions based on data and to interpret information correctly.

### How to Calculate Percentages

Calculating percentages is easy once you understand the basic formula. To find the percentage of a number, follow these steps:

- Divide the number you want to find the percentage of by the total number.
- Multiply the result by 100 to get the percentage.

### Examples of Calculating Percentages

Let’s look at some examples of calculating percentages:

- If you want to find out what percentage 25 is of 50, divide 25 by 50 to get 0.5. Multiply this by 100 to get 50%, so 25 is 50% of 50.
- If you want to know what percentage 7 is of 35, divide 7 by 35 to get 0.2. Multiply this by 100 to get 20%, so 7 is 20% of 35.

## Why Knowing Percentages is Useful

Understanding percentages is useful in many different scenarios.

### Finance

In finance, percentages are used to calculate interest rates, discounts, and taxes. By understanding percentages, you can make informed decisions about loans, investments, and savings.

### Statistics

In statistics, percentages are used to represent data and to compare different groups. By understanding percentages, you can interpret data correctly and draw accurate conclusions.

### Science

In science, percentages are used to represent proportions and to analyze data. Understanding percentages is essential for interpreting scientific studies and making informed decisions based on research.

## Common Percentage Calculations

There are many common percentage calculations that you may encounter in your daily life. Let’s take a look at a few examples:

### Discounts

When you see a sale advertised, the discount is usually expressed as a percentage. For example, if a store is offering a 20% discount on a $50 item, you can calculate the sale price as follows:

- Calculate the discount: 20% of $50 is $10.
- Subtract the discount from the original price: $50 – $10 = $40.

So, the sale price of the item is $40.

### Taxes

Taxes are often expressed as a percentage. For example, if the sales tax in your area is 7%, you can calculate the total cost of an item as follows:

- Calculate the tax: 7% of $50 is $3.50.
- Add the tax to the original price: $50 + $3.50 = $53.50.

So, the total cost of the item is $53.50.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, understanding percentages is an essential skill that has many practical applications. Whether you’re calculating discounts, analyzing data, or making financial decisions, knowing how to calculate percentages will help you make informed choices and interpret information correctly. So, the next time you encounter a percentage calculation, remember the basic formula: divide, multiply, and convert to a percentage!